Bibliography of Peer Reviewed Scientific and Medical Journals re BP

Axelson, D. et al. A Preliminary Study of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children Mania Rating Scale for Children and Adolescents. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 463-470. A study showing the potential of the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present Episode rating scale for measuring manic symptom severity in pediatric bipolar patients.

Bhangoo, R. et al. Medication Use in Children and Adolescents Treated in the Community for Bipolar Disorder.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 515-522.An assessment of the use of mood stabilizers, stimulants, antipsychotic medication, and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in children being treated in the community for bipolar disorder (BPD).

Biederman, J.,Pediatric Mania: A Developmental Subtype of Bipolar Disorder?2000 (full text).

Biederman, J., et al. An exchange of letters related to the debate about mania and ADHD.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, (May 1999) (full text).

Biederman, J., et al. Resolved: Mania Is Mistaken for ADHD in Prepubertal Children.A debate sponsored by the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (October 1998).

Bloch, et al. "ECT Therapy in Adolescents: Similarities and Differences from Adults". Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, (2001) (full text). Thisstudy found that Electroconvulsive therapy is effective in adolescents for psychosis associated with bipolardisorder and schizophrenia, with a 58% remission rateachieved in adolescents who had failed to respond to medications alone.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.

Bonifazi, W. Back to school for psychotropics.Nursing Spectrum. December 15, 2003. This article looks at some of the issues surrounding the use of (often off-label and untested) psychotropic drugs for children and adolescents. Copyright 2003. Nursing Spectrum Nurse Wire ( All rights reserved. Used with permission.

Carlson, G. Identifying Prepubertal Mania.

Carlson, G. et al. A Comparison of Books on Bipolar Disorder in Children and Adolescents.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 435-443.

Cecil, K. et al. Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of the Frontal Lobe and Cerebellar Vermis in Children with a Mood Disorder and a Familial Risk for Bipolar Disorders.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 545-555. Similar to findings in adults with bipolar disorders, neurochemical abnormalities within the frontal cortex and the cerebellar vermis were present in this preliminary comparison of children with a mood disorder and a familial risk for bipolar disorder.

Charney, D. and Manji, H. Life stress, genes, and depression: multiple pathways lead to increased risk and new opportunities for intervention.Science's STKE. 2004. .Reprinted with permission from Stephen R. Sprang. (19 September 2000)

Christiana, J.M. et al. Duration between onset and time of obtaining initial treatment among people with anxiety and mood disorders: an international survey of members of mental health patient advocate groups.Psychological Medicine (2000) (full text)
40% of respondents sought treatment in the year of first onset of the disorder. For 60% respondents, the median delay for seeking help was 8 years. The time of initial help-seeking was inversely related to the age of the patient at onset.

Depression and Bipolar Disorder Support Alliance Consensus Statement on the Unmet Needs in Diagnosis and Treatment in Mood Disorders in Children and Adolescents.
Coyle, J. et al. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003. Vol. 42(12): 1494-1503.
The findings of the Consensus Development Panel concerning the unmet needs of children and adolescents with bipolar disorder and depression. These findings focus on the lack of specifically trained mental health professionals as well as changes that need to be made in treatments and prevention models.Reprinted with Permission of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

DelBello, et al. A Double-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Study ofQuetiapine [Seroquel] as Adjunctive Treatment for Adolescent Mania(full text)Seroquel combined with Depakote is found to besignificantly more effective in treating acute mania in adolescents (12-18)than Depakote alone.J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry, (2002).

Faedda, Gianni L., MD et al. Pediatric-Onset Bipolar Disorder: A Neglected Clinical and Public Health Problem. Harvard Rev Psychiatry . (1995) (full text)

Faraone, S.V. et al. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with bipolar disorder in girls: further evidence for a familial subtype? Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001. Vol. 64(1): 19-27.

Feinberg, D The Real Cost of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.
Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 431-433.

Findling, Robert L., M.D. et al. Combination Lithium and Divalproex Sodium in Pediatric Bipolarity.J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, (2003). An open-label trial indicates that using these two mood stabilizers together as initial treatment may lead to better remission rates than treatment with only one mood stabilizer. (full text)

Geller, Barbara et al. Ages of onset and rates of syndromal and subsyndromal comorbid DSM-IV diagnoses in prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 2003. 42(12): 1486-1493Findings of this study suggest that in a prepubertal group with a bipolar disorder phenotype the onset of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder occurs before the onset of mania, while the onset of oppositional defiant/conduct disorder occurs after the first onset of mania. These findings support the development of scales to differentiate preschool ADHD from mania.

Geller, Barbara, MD et al. Double-Blind and Placebo-Controlled Study of Lithium for Adolescent Bipolar Disorders With Secondary Substance DependencyJ Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. (1998) (full text)Lithium at therapeutic levels for four weeks (after a two week phase-inperiod) was found to significantly improve symptoms of bipolar disorderwhile reducing substance abuse by teens in this landmark study funded by the National Institute of Drug Abuse.

Geller, Barbara, M.D. and Luby, Joan, M.D. Child and Adolescent Bipolar Disorder: A Review of the Past 10 Years.American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (1997). (full text)

Geller, B, et al. Reliability of the Washington University in St. Louis Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (WASH-U-KSADS) mania and rapid cycling sections.
J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry.

Geller B, et al. "Two-year prospective follow-up of children with a prepubertal and earlyadolescent bipolar disorder phenotype,": Am J Psychiatry 2002 (abstract only). The first two-year naturalisticfollow-up of children with prepubertal and early adolescent mania.Relatively poor outcome was shown with community treatment (not in anacademic research setting) for these very ill children with mixed mania andcontinuous rapid cycling, less than half of whom received any antimanicmedication.

Geller, B. et al. Bipolar disorder at prospective follow-up of adults who had prepubertal major depressive disorder.Am J Psychiatry 2001 Jan;158 (1):125-7 (abstract only).

Geller, Barbara, et al. DSM-IV Mania Symptoms in a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype Compared to Attention-Deficit Hyperactive and Normal Controls. in Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology, Vol. 12, Number 1, 2002, (abstract only).

Geller, Barbara, et al. Prepubertal and early adolescent bipolarity differentiate from ADHD by manic symptoms, grandiose delusions, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling.
Reprinted from Journal of Affective Disorders, Volume 51, (1998) (abstract only).

Ghaemi, S. Nassir, et al. Is bipolar disorder still underdiagnosed? Are antidepressants overutilized?Journal of Affective Disorders (1999). (full text)

Gracious, B. et al. Elevated thyrotropin in bipolar youths prescribed both lithium and divalproex sodium.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2004.43(2): 215-220. Study of the effects of combined lithium and depakote on thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). The study concluded that lithium is associated with significant rates of TSH elevation in youths with bipolar disorder.

Gracious, Barbara L. et al. Discriminative Validity of a Parent Version of the Young Mania Rating Scale.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2002) (full text).It is likely that the P-YMRS is a statistically effective test for discriminating between bipolar disorder and other Axis I disorders (such as ADHD). It is also a good measure for monitoring response to treatment. However, it is not a diagnostic tool and should be used to help assess whether a child should be screened for a disorder by a professional.

Grof, P. et al. Protective effect of pregnancy in women with lithium-responsive bipolar disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders (2000) (full text).This study suggests that women with bipolar disorder may have fewer episodesof illness while pregnant.

Hellander, M. Medication-induced mania: ethical issues and the need for more research. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003 Vol. 13(2): 199. The dangers of mania triggered by antidepressants or stimulants in children and adolescents. A call for doctors and parents alike to be informed, and for more research to be done. Reprinted with the permission of Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

Hellander, M. Depression and Suicidality in Preschoolers
Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. 2003 Vol. 42(10): 1141A letter to the editor citing evidence of the manifestation of depression and suicidality in young children, and the need for continuing investigation for treatment options.

Henry, C. et al.Long-Term Outcome with Divalproex in Children and Adolescents with Bipolar Disorder.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 523-529.In children aged 4-18 years, divalproex treatment was related to improved outcome in the long-term treatment of bipolar disorder. One third of the patients discontinued treatment secondary to side effects, including a case of reversible liver enzyme elevation.National Institute of Mental Health Research Roundtable on Prepubertal Bipolar Disorder. A roundtable of invited clinicians and researchers with expertise on bipolar disorder in children concluded that diagnosis of bipolar disorder using DSM-IV criteria is possible in prepubertal children.

Kafantaris, V. et al. Lithium treatment of acute mania in adolescents: A large open trial.Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2003) (full text).
Of 100 subjects, 63 improved and 26 achieved remission of manic symptoms by the fourth week. Prominent depressive features, age at first mood episode, severity of mania, and comorbidity with ADHD did not distinguish those who responded to the medication from those who did not. Lithium appears effective for acute stabilization of symptoms of acutely manic adolescent (ages 12-18).

National Institute of Mental Health Research Roundtable on Prepubertal Bipolar Disorder
A Special Communication published in the Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, August, 2001 (full text).

Kafantaris, Vivian, M.D., Treatment of Bipolar Disorder in Children andAdolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child andAdolescent Psychiatry (1995) (full text).This article contains a valuable summary of researchstudies on lithium use in children between FDA approvalin 1970 for treatment of adults (and teens over 12) withmania and its publication in 1995.

Kasen, Stephanie PhD, et al., Childhood Depression and Adult Personality Disorder: "Alternative Pathways of Continuity", Archives of General Psychology, 2001 (abstract only).

Kovacs, M. ; Pollock, M. Bipolar disorder and comorbid conduct disorder in childhood and adolescence.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry June 1995;34(6):715-23 (abstract only).

Kowatch, Robert A. et al. Efficacy of Lithium, Divalproex Sodium, and Carbamazepine in Children and Adolescents With Bipolar Disorder Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (2000) (full text).

Malone, Richard P. MD, et al. Nonpharmacological Response in Hospitalized Children With Conduct DisorderJ Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry, Volume 36(2).February 1997 (242-247) (abstract only).

Mercer, Jean. Attachment therapy using deliberate restraint: an object lesson on the identification of unvalidated treatments.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Nursing (2001) (full text). Unvalidated psychiatric treatments such as attachment therapy, which includes rebirthing therapy, holding therapy, and therapeutic parenting, can be dangerous and potentially lethal to children

Mick, E. et al. Defining a Developmental Subtype of Bipolar Disorder in a Sample of Nonreferred Adults by Age at Onset. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 453-462. In contrast with adult-onset bipolar disorder, child-onset bipolar disorder was associated with a longer duration of illness, more irritability than euphoria, a mixed presentation, a more chronic or rapid-cycling course, and increased comorbidity with childhood disruptive behavior disorders and anxiety disorders.Pavuluri, Mani N.; Naylor, Michael; and Janicak, Philip G.

Recognition and Treatment of Pediatric Bipolar Disorder.Contemporary Psychiatry (April 2002) (full text). An excellent summary of pediatric onset and adolescent onset bipolar disorder, and treatment guidelines used by the Pediatric Mood Disorders Clinic at University of Illinois at Chicago.

Preskorn, S and Flockhart, D. 2004 Guide to Psychiatric Drug Interactions. Primary Psychiatry. 2004;11 (2) 39-60. Reprinted with permission of MBL Communications, Inc. Overview of drug-drug interactions, with useful tables showing principle mechanism of action for commonly used psychiatric medications; relative binding affinity for specific neuroreceptors (table 6); major drug-drug interactions (table 14); and chart of substrates, inhibitors and inducers for the major CYP (liver) enzymes used to metabolize drugs (table 15).

Pilcher, Helen R. The ups and downs of Lithium Nature: Science Update. September 22, 2003.Lithium has been used for decades to treat manic depression and may help combat other brain disorders, so how come no one knows for sure why it works?Reprinted with Permission of Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Pruett, John R. Jr; Joan L. Luby. January 14, 2004. Recent Advances in Prepubertal Mood Disorders: Phenomenology and Treatment. From Current Opinion in Psychiatry, available on Medscape, requires (free) registration. An excellent overview of advances of the past three years in diagnosis and treatment.

Quackenbush, D. et al. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 1996 Vol. 41(1): 16-22. Premorbid and postmorbid school functioning in bipolar adolescents: description and suggested academic interventions. The pre and post illness school functioning of 44 adolescents with adolescent onset bipolar disorder was studied in order to evaluate and describe the changes in school functioning after onset of illness. Assessment measures included a personal interview, review of school history and formal academic testing. The results seem to indicate that good to excellent scholastic functioning before the onset of illness significantly deteriorates after the onset of illness in most adolescents. Marked deterioration appears in work effort, involvement in extracurriculars, academic achievement and peer relationships. Specific program modifications in the school are needed in order to help these adolescents including an open communication between the clinician, parents and the school.Reprinted with the permission of The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry

Robertson, H. et al. Impact of early onset bipolar disorder on family functioning: Adolescent's perceptions of family dynamics, communication, and problems. Journal of Affective Disorders. 2001. Vol. 66(1): 25-37.This study examined the perceived family functioning in stabilized bipolar I disorder patients and unipolar depression patients, as well as a control group. They found that there were no significant sex or group differences in controls versus mood disordered youths in ratings of relationships with either parent. However, those with bipolar I disorder acknowledged significantly more minor conflicts with parents than either those with unipolar depression or controls.

Ryan, Neal D. et al. Mood Stabilizers in Children and Adolescents.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (1999) (full text).

Schurhoff, F. et al. Early and late onset bipolar disorders: two different forms of manic-depressive illness?Journal of Affective Disorders (2000) (full text).Early and late onset bipolar disorders differ in clinical expression and familial risk and can be considered as different subforms of manic-depressive illness.

Shoshana, Y. et al. Employing Parent, Teacher, and Youth Self-Report Checklists in Identifying Pediatric Bipolar Spectrum Disorders: An Examination of Diagnostic Accuracy and Clinical Utility. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 471-488. The current study examines whether commonly used behavior checklists - the Child Behavior Checklist, Teacher Report Form, and the Youth Self-Report form - are clinically useful in making a differential diagnosis between BPSD and other disorders. Results indicate that the Child Behavior Checklist has limited utility when attempting to derive clinically meaningful information about the presentation of juvenile BPSD.

Siggurdsson, Engilbert, et al. Neurodevelopmental antecedents of early-onset bipolar affective disorderBritish Journal of Psychiatry, 1999, 174, l2l-l27 (abstract only).

Sussman, N. et al. Chronic Marijuana Use and the Treatment of Mentally Ill Patients Primary Psychiatry 2003 Vol. 10(9): 73-76. A review of the harm that marijuana use can have on patients with mental illness. Also the difficulty patients have discontinuing marijuana use, and the ways in which continued use can complicate the treatment efforts.

Tillman, R. et al. Temperament and Character Factors in a Prepubertal and Early Adolescent Bipolar Disorder Phenotype Compared to Attention Deficit Hyperactive and Normal Controls.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 531-543. This study compares the temperament and character (T/C) factors in a prepubertal and early adolescent bipolar disorder phenotype (PEA-BP), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and normal community controls (NC). The findings are consistent with studies of novelty seeking in adults who had either BP or ADHD and are discussed in relationship to genetic studies of dopamine receptors and novelty seeking.

Weinberg, Warren et al. Depression and Other Affective Illnesses as a Cause of School Failure and Maladaptation in Learning Disabled Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults.Secondary Education and Beyond (Chapter 15), (1995), (full text).

Weitzel, Cathy A. Could you spot this psych emergency?RN Magazine (2000) (full text).Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome is a potentially lethal side effect of antipsychotic medications. Parents need to know the warning signs.

Wilens T., Biederman J., et al. Risk for Substance Abuse Disorders in Youth with Child-and Adolescent-Onset Bipolar Disorder.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (1999) (full text). Bipolar disorder is associated with high risk of developing substance abuse, with substantially higher risk in the children whose illness began in adolescence as compared to those with prepubertal onset.

Wilens, Timothy E., Wyatt, Daniel , Spencer, Thomas J. MD. Disentangling Disinhibition.Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (1998). An excellent discussion of adverse medication reactions such as disinhibition, activation, and unmasking an underlying psychiatric disorder such as anxiety or mania.

Wilens, T. et al. Patterns of Comorbidity and Dysfunction in Clinically Referred Preschool and School-Age Children with Bipolar Disorder.Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 495-505. This study reports on the clinical characteristics, psychiatric comorbidity, and functioning of preschoolers identified with BPD who were referred to a pediatric psychiatric clinic. The results suggest that clinically referred preschoolers with BPD share with school-age children with BPD high rates of comorbid psychopathology and impaired functioning

Wozniak, J. et al. Heterogeneity of childhood conduct disorder: further evidence of a subtype of conduct disorder linked to bipolar disorder.Journal of Affective Disorders (2001).Comorbid bipolar disorder and conduct disorder may be a distinct familial subtype and not due to the chance co-occurance of the two disorders.

Wozniak, Janet M.D. et al. Antecedents and Complications of Trauma in Boys With ADHD: Findings From a Longitudinal Study.Bipolar disorder (mania) in a child is a significant predictor of subsequent trauma. Severe irritability and mood symptoms in a traumatized child may indicate pre-existing mania rather than a reaction to the trauma, and should be treated accordingly.

Wozniak, J. Pediatric Bipolar Disorder: The New Perspective on Severe Mood Dysfunction in Children. Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology. 2003. Vol. 13(4): 449-451.An analysis of the changes that have taken place in the last 10 years in the diagnosis of pediatric bipolar disorder.

Last updated: March 3, 2010


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